It holds nitrogen and sulfur in organic forms and other essential nutrients such as potassium and calcium. Indian soil contains 0.3 to 0.2 per cent nitrogen, 0.03 to 0.3 per cent phosphorus and 0.4 to 0.5 per cent potassium. In heavy rainfall areas, the nutrients are lost by leaching. The goal of soil nutrient management is to sustainably produce profitable crops. Factors influencing the CEC include the soil type, the soil pH and the soil organic matter content. Factors Affecting Soil Fertility. The reactions are believed to occur as follows: All these changes apparently are directly biochemical and are encouraged by poor aeration and drainage and the presence of abundant amounts of easily affected nitrogenous compound. Because the fertility of the soil decreases by the process of leaching and weathering in course of time. Soil fertility 1. This article discusses how to adjust nutrients for appropriate soil fertility. It is the final stage of decayed plants and animals and the most effective material for improving soil. They largely determine the physical and chemical properties of the soil. This is determined by the source rock, the climate, biological and chemical processes. The pore-space under field conditions, are occupied at all times by air and water. Weeds by nature of them grow fast and remove the plant nutrients from the soil. 3. Taking medication. is known as ‘acquired fertility’. Soil colloids are small particles and the most active portion of the soil. Plant nutrient, particularly nitrogen remains on the upper layer of soil. Low CEC indicates the possibility of easily losing nutrients by leaching. of Land Resources and Environmental Sciences, Montana State University, Bozeman. To optimize crop production, it is important to maintain fertile soil with the right combination of plant nutrients as well as an optimum soil pH. Super phosphate applied in acid soil is converted into iron or aluminium phosphate which is not soluble in water. If the parent rock contains more nutrient, the soil developed from rock contains more nutrient. Competition begins when the supply of plant nutrients falls below the requirements of both weeds and crops. See ESA simulation and pictures of comet landing : The acquired fertility has also a limiting factor. Nitrogen is generally subjected to loss in gaseous form. Besides this, cultivation of crops without manuring decreases the fertility of soil. The expectation of growing plants and crops as food for both humans and livestock depends heavily on the soil's health and its proper fertilization. Factors affecting soil structure also include soil colloids. Factors affecting soil fertility and productivity Soil fertility is the ability of the soil to provide nutrients in proper quantities and in a balanced way for the growth of plants. Soil fertility technologies have been generated and disseminated by various development institutions to reverse the Organic matter contains the plant nutrients. (b) Nitrites in slightly acid solution will evolve gaseous nitrogen when brought in contact with certain ammonium salts with simple amines such as urea and even with non- nitrogenous sulphur compounds and carbohydrates. ​. Leaching and erosion is most common in sloppy land. Crop rotation increases the fertility of soil. For this, the fertility of soil in temperate region becomes low. Soil Colloids. Cultivation of same crop year after year in the same field decreases the fertility of soil. Soil pH - After testing the soil, you determine the existing pH level of the soil. Microbial Mediated Micronutrient Transformation in soil Fe Zn Cu Mo Mn 2. Soil fertility and nutrient management is one of the important factors that have a direct impact on crop yield and quality. Soil erosion is the washing away of the most fertile part of the soil (the top soil). • Plants require some elements in such minute or smaller amounts that these element have been designated as minor/trace element or Micro nutrient. Soil fertility depends on such factors affecting soil formation as climate, parent material, natural and cultivated plants, and topography. De, in an experiment showed that blue green algae fix 50 kg nitrogen per hectare in the paddy land having good amount of water. This will be acute if weeding is not done as soon as weeds emerge or germinate. Soil productivity is the ability of the soil to produce crop per unit area. The factors affecting soil fertility may be of two types; i.e. In growing plants and crops in a loose layer of land, soil fertility is important. On the other hand, the activities of some of the microorganisms are beneficial to each other. As such it decreases the fertility of soil. Not only that, we dive deeper into the influential and affecting factors of the fertility of the soil. Keep in mind, however, that soil productivity can also be affected or influenced by other factors than the fertility of the soil. As a result of which, the fertility of that soil becomes low. Along with that, you would discover the nutrients that are available that can be used for planting crops. For example, presence of weeds in the farms may lower the level of productivity of the soil, even when the soil fertile. Losses of plant nutrients from the soil are the main cause of decreasing the fertility of soil. Even if the soil is fertile, the level of productivity can be disrupted by the presence of weeds and even certain farming methods. Let us have a look at what is soil fertility and how can it be replenished. Meaning of Porosity of Soil: Pore-spaces (also called voids) in a soil consist of that portion of the soil volume not occupied by solids, either mineral or organic. However, soil fertility is a concept that not everyone is familiar with. Soils with high sand content have low holding capacity for cations compared to clayey and silty soils. Plant nutrients are lost from the soil by the following ways: (i) Removal of Plant Nutrients by Harvested Crops: Plant absorbs nutrients from the soil and stores them in their different parts. The soil containing more organic matter becomes more fertile. Soil has millions of tiny living organisms called micro-organisms like bacteria, fungi etc. Soil Fertility Specialist Dept. xiii. In fact, onl… Explain and give specific examples to support your case, and cite your sources in a 1-page essay. Definition of Soil Fertility 2. Nitrogen is mainly lost from soil by leaching. Photo credit: Roman Synkevych on Unsplash. So the fertility of soil depends on the inherent capacity of soil. Decline of soil fertility has been a major challenge influencing agricultural productivity in Sub-Saharan Africa as well as Malawi. The fertility of soil depends mostly on the texture and structure of soil. What are the Factors that Influence Soil Fertility? Types of Soil Fertility 3. Factors Affecting Distribution, Activity and Population of Soil Microorganisms, Soil microorganisms (Flora & Fauna), just like higher plants depends entirely on soil for their nutrition, growth and activity. are associated with denitrification. Furthermore, these are some external factors that can affect soil fertility: Climate (rainfall, temperature etc.) There are majorly 12 factors influence Soil fertility Soil productivity is heavily dependent on the fertility of the soil. The fertility of soil is also dependent on the topography of soil. The study established the factors that influence the use of cattle andchicken manure for managing soil fertility by surveying a random sample of 224farm households in the Midlands of KwaZulu-Natal province, South Africa. Brad D. Brown. Read also: Earthworm Benefits to Soil Fertility and Plants in Agriculture. Irrespective of the size of your field or plot, supplying plants with the right amount of nutrients at the right time is the key to a successful vegetable production enterprise. As a result, phosphate remains in the soil in unavailable form to plant. The soil developed earlier losses its fertility gradually. The soil's overall health depends on these factors a lot. The soil which contains much quantity of nutrient becomes more fertile. The soil developed from calcareous rock contains more phosphorus than the soil which is developed from granite rock. In an experiment in central farm, Coimbatore, it was found that the garden soil of nine inches depth contains 1400 lb (630 kg) potassium per acre. 1. Various types of organism live in the soil. A fertile soil should have the correct proportion of plants nutrients and optimum pH Updated: July 18, 2019. The biochemical reduction of nitrate (NO3) and nitrite (NO2) to gaseous nitrogen is often termed denitrification. As a result of which, organic matter do not decompose properly and the nutrients of organic matter does not transformed in available form of the plant. On the other hand, the fertility of level and becomes more, because the nutrient of high land in soluble form deposited in the level land, specially in low land. Save For Later Print. Among the plant nutrients, nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium is essential for the normal growth and yield of crop. Losses of nitrogen occur due to following reduction: The biochemical reduction of nitrate nitrogen to gaseous compounds is called ‘denitrification’ and is thought to be the most widespread type of volatilization. The bad aeration in the soil is not good for the growth of the crop. Factors Influencing the Fertility of the Soil Soil pH- After testing the soil, you determine the existing pH levelof the soil. Organic matter plays a key role in maintaining soil fertility. The sandy soil is less fertile, whereas loamy soil is more fertile. It is a complex situation even the interaction of some of the factors also can influence the fertility of the soil. For example, addition of twice the amount of fertilizer may not double the yield of the crop. Besides these, the upper layer is eroded which decreases the soil fertility. It is found by experiment that the yield does not increase remarkably by application of additional quantity of fertilizers. Organic matter - You can also increase the fertility of the soil by determining the presence of certain organic materials that contain nutrients in them. Soils are made up of sand, organic matter, silt and clay particles. – (a) Natural factor and (b) Artificial factor. Extension Soil and Crop Management Specialist, retired. They include all the practices that affect fertility, the water and air relationships and the activity of the biological agents such as insects, pests, diseases and microorganisms. Along with that, you would discover the nutrients that are available that can be used for planting crops. The following factors affect the soil fertility: The loss of organic matter mainly occurs through continuous cropping with stubble removal or burning, and is accelerated by frequent tillage. Decomposition of organic matter increases the nitrogen content of soil. The factors affecting soil fertility may be of two types; i.e. Soil texture and soil fertility are examples of characteristics that we may attempt to enhance. Two types ; i.e are beneficial to each other bare soils level of productivity can used. Depending upon crops, marketing condition and several other factors ( i.e are removed over time in products. 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